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  • Writer's pictureCrystal Ball

Google Analytics 4 - Tips for Beginners

Updated: Dec 20, 2021

Google Analytics Tip 1: Commence with Business Concerns.

Digital analytics is a means of getting valuable insights that will translate into business value. To put it more simply, your analysis work should be motivated by essential business questions.

This will likely come as a bit of contrast to the article's title, but one of the best Google Analytics tips is that you shouldn't just rely on suggestions or checklists; somewhat, it's all about asking thoughtful, essential questions.

Good analysts indicate there isn't any sophisticated knowledge of a tool's interface, either — though it does assist you to know where you're pressing and what the screens mean.

It may make you step back and think critically, ask important business questions, and get answers associated with a high amount of precision.

Typically, the challenges each business faces can be unique. If you try to follow a formulation or a best practice, you can start to have the thought that you're gathering insights–but you're just taking the easy way to avoid it.

· Do you know the right questions? It is highly contingent on your business as well as your situation. I could rattle off essential business questions that I'd like to know endlessly:

· Do customers who purchase X tend to get more products down the line? Within any standard order?

· What are the every day on-site actions of our most valuable customers?

· What's the marginal success associated with our display campaigns? Exactly how can we boost their impact?

· What's the behavioral difference between cohort A and cohort B since changes to the product?…and on and on. Lead with the problem, don't just "data puke" a statement.

Google Analytics Tip 2: Set Up Objectives.

We can't mention Google Analytics tips without listing Objectives. You cannot use Search engine Analytics if you don't leverage goals.

You may think you're using Search engines Analytics — you look at your traffic numbers, see your jump rate, and exactly how it changes with time. You can identify what devices your audience is using. But if you are yet to set up goals, you're losing out on 95%+ of the worth that Google Analytics offers.

You take a strategic approach to your measurement when you set goals in Google Analytics. It makes you ask questions like, "what's the purpose of this site?"

Fortunately, it's effortless to set progressive goals in Google Analytics. Just log into your Google Analytics accounts and then:

1. Click on Admin, and get around to the desired view.

2. In the View column, click Goals.

3. Click +NEW GOAL or Import from Gallery to create a new goal.

There are three basic options for creating goals:

1. Using a goal template

2. Creating custom goals

3. Creating Smart Goals

I won't go too far into the various types of goals (here's an excellent guide for that if you would like to read more), but the goal templates tend to suffice for primary and prototypical business cases. You can set up a Goal for a thank you page, for instance. Let's pretend we're doing that for an e-commerce site here:

You will notice in the above that I also added steps under "Funnel." This is essential and can add a ton of value when you start thinking about conversion optimization. More on that later.

Consider carefully what concerns your business and set goals upwards in Google Analytics to trail for those goals.

Google Analytics Tip 3: Map Out Your current Event Tracking Intentionally.

Events help you fill the breaks between traffic research and goal research. Essentially, they let you see clearer – what are users doing on the webpage?

Once you have created events, here is what an example report may look like from in the GA software (accessible via Habits > Activities > Overview):

You'll notice that there are about three components that comprise activities in GA:

· Class

· Action

· Label (optional, but recommended)

For example, if you do have a video on your homepage and want to track connections with it, the following values could take place:

· Category: "Videos."

· Action: "Play."

· Tag: "Home Page."

Google Analytics event is a massive matter. It's also a strategic one. It may be an area where you need to reason again and think about your business goals again. What user connections matter to your site? Perhaps, it could be that users:

· Download an eBook

· Play a video

· Interact with a slider

· Communicate with a food selection

· Play music

The list is unlimited. Some platforms are built around event-based trackings, like Amplitude and Number, which you can check out (usually employed by software products or mobile programs, but also by e-commerce too).

Google Analytics Tip 4: Question Your Meaning of Bounce Rate.

Folks often take jump rates to deal with value. They believe a high jump rate is negative, and also, a low jump rate is outstanding. It's not that easy, however.

If that has been the case, typically, the easiest way provided by GA to decrease your bounce level would have got nothing to do with user habits. The most straightforward approach would be to create an altered bounce rate.

Typically the definition of any jump rate is simply a new single-interaction session about your site. Many people generally forget the "interaction" part and believe that a jump is when Person 2 lands on the page and after Person 1 leaves.

"Without triggering any requests on the particular Analytics server throughout that session may cause issues. Because, how exactly would you have monitor occasions set up within Google Analytics? Somebody could arrive on just one web page and exit and not counted as a bounce.

A new, somewhat complex topic, but presently there are essentially two types of occasions you can set up with GA:

· Interaction Occasions

· Non-Interaction Occasions

To describe both of these, think about a hypothetical website. Let's say a good e-commerce site that will sell T-shirts. The user enters the home page, watches an item video, then leaves. Should that count as a bounce? Well, it depends on the way you set that event occasion.

If you arranged it as a non-interaction occasion, it wouldn't impact your bounce rate. The session will undoubtedly be counted as a bounce. If it is an interaction occasion, then by actively playing that video, in that case, the consumer sends an additional request to the particular Analytics server throughout the session, and it will not be counted as a bounced event.

You can observe how this is a tactical decision. You may select what matters and what does not because of interactive events.

Google Analytics Tip 5: Automate Annotations Using GAannotations

GAannotations is a chrome extension that is developed to simply Google Analytics especially when it comes to adding annotations. It is an option that helps you add annotations to the graph. This is to help you gain insights and also understand how holidays, life events, development updates, news, extreme weather, marketing dates, and Google algorithm updates affect your campaign.

• GAannotations can help you add annotations automatically for new ad campaigns like a newsletter, new version release, etc.

• You can add several annotations to your Google Analytics at once by uploading through API and CSV.

• You can also add any data to your Google Analytics reports via our API integration.

With GAannotations, you can add data using any of the following methods:

• Through Data source

• Manual Input

• Uploading through CSV

• API Integration

• Integration with other tools

Other information related to Annotations:

• To create annotations on Google Analytics, an individual needs only Read and Examine rights. So, anyone who accesses a view will be able to annotate that.

• The default setting for annotations is shared presence (as proven in the first screenshot above). If you want to hide the annotations you're creating from others, select Private.

• Annotations are copied between reports within the same view. For instance, if you create an annotation in the Landing Pages report, the caption image will usually be in the All Referrals statement.

• Annotations are not simulated among views. If you and your team add multiple views on the same property, ensure you understand each view and ensure you all are aware of the annotations.

Google Analytics Tip 6: Use Funnels.

This is another Search engine Analytics tip similar to setting up goals. Along with any goal, all of us can set up the funnel to see our users' journey to achieve the goal. Along with that, we can see the steps where people fall away, effectively finding the particular leaks within our transformation funnel.

It is easy enough to set up funnels, especially whenever there is a straightforward page-based goal. You work on the processes or steps the consumer might need to go through to reach the goal. Within this example, the user will go from:

· Cart

· Invoicing and Shipping

· Transaction

· Review

· Total Purchase

Yours may vary. However, it usually comes after an identical format (at least with e-commerce). You set up funnels while you're setting your objectives:

Google Analytics Tip 7: Review Horizontal Funnels.

As associated with the arranged Google Analytics' Improved eCommerce feature, you're able to squeeze a great deal of value from funnels.

This functions mainly through the Shopping Behavior statement. Of course, you need to allow Enhanced Ecommerce and set up the way you want your funnel to screen. But this is precisely what it will look like:

Essentially, a person gets to enter a horizontal channel, which is entirely customizable within its use.

Besides, there are numerous problems and restrictions with the traditional Google Analytics channel (including backfilling, insufficient segmentation capabilities).

So, the particular above funnel teaches you a lot. This teaches you that there are about 16,843 total sessions, a few 3,843 of these seen products. Following that, 1,243 sessions incorporated an "add to cart" action, and so on. We can mix it up further and change our "Sessions" to "Abandonments," giving you an inverse way of viewing the information:

You may also see the funnel making use of different dimensions. For example, to view actions conducted by Device Groups; click on "User Type," choose "Device Categories," and go through the dropdown menu:

In addition to the particular previous Google Analytics tips, a person can add client audiences, which will be super powerful. Click + Include Segment at the top of the specific screen as a person usually would, plus select whichever target audience you'd want to examine.

Another fantastic characteristic of this Increased Ecommerce funnel characteristic is that, when you're integrated with Google AdWords or perhaps Doubleclick, you could create a viewer off of anyone who abandons at a particular step. Besides, using them in your current AdWords campaigns specifically enables more superior targeting for your existing ad operations.

Google Analytics Tip 8: Combine Google Analytics With Testing Tools.

Ensure you bring the data from another place other than just your testing tool when running A/B tests.

It's not to disprove your testing tool; it's just that you want a second look at your data. Besides, there's a ton of limitation with how you do post-test analysis if you're only using your testing tool to do it.

For instance, you won't dig into different segments and see how the test impacted them. You most times have to ask for the raw data regarding income analysis, which is stressful. By integrating with Google Analytics, you can review your data and observe user behavior at a more granular level.

Google Analytics Tip 9: Utilize Custom Segmentation.

If you look at Google Analytics reports from a birds-eye view, you're missing out on so much information. Besides, most critical business questions depend on your ability to dig into advanced segments (not all, but most, I've found out).

Google Analytics has a host of several segments. You can access them when you click on + Add Segment and then click "System." They include elements like "Bounced Sessions," "Direct Traffic," and "Made a Purchase."

These can be valuable but shouldn't limit the scope regarding your analysis. Regarding further insights, you should use custom segments. To generate one, you merely click on the red & New Segment key at the top left. When there, you may quite much set virtually any parameters you may want to get into.

Today, there are many opportunities here, but I'll give you a new concrete. Let's say you want to see typically the behavior of individuals who landed over a given blog page write-up and then manufactured a purchase. To accomplish this, we'll go beneath "Advanced" and click "Sequences."

It will look just like this:

Google Analytics Tip 10: Learn RegEx.

RegEx (or a Typical Expression) is a new sequence of emblems and characters articulating a string or perhaps pattern to get research within a new longer piece regarding the text. What's typically the importance of RegEx to Google Analytics? You can…

Generate filters. Many filtration systems require Regular Movement.

Create one aim which fits multiple aim pages.

Suppose your current Thanks page provides many names; nevertheless, they're fundamentally a similar goal. You should use Typical Expressions to "roll them up."

Fine-tune your straightforward steps to enable you to acquire precisely what an individual needs.

Learning RegEx will boost your current skills as an expert without a doubt. There are several good works on this; nevertheless, this PDF from LunaMetrics is our favorite. Here is a good community forum of numerous other works.

Make an effort to understand it piece by piece. Learn something. Besides, ensure you test it out in Google Analytics, then do it again until you're great at it.

Google Analytics Tip 11: Leverage Google Analytics Custom Reports.

Another way to get more from Google Analytics is to make use of custom reports. You can locate this feature inside the Customization segment under "Custom Information."

There are usually three types regarding reports:

· Checkout

· Toned Table

· Map Contribution

Without diving deeply into difficulties, here is an example regarding an accessible custom record that shows sales by device:

Google Analytics custom reports usually are super straightforward to make, and once your know how-to, you'll end up using them almost all the time.

Google Analytics Tip 12: Automate Your Reporting.

While analytics should essentially be a function of asking essential business questions, there are specific reports that you're constantly running. When a task is monotonous, it is only best to automate it.

With Google Analytics, you can do this in a few ways, most of which include bringing your data to a third-party tool. Two suitable methods you can use to data reporting are:

· Google Sheets and Google Analytics API

· Google Data Studio

Realistically, the API/Sheets procedure may give you some extra capabilities that you can't get in Data Studio. However, Data Studio is so effortless to use that I could not recommend anything more if you're looking for a simple and successful way to systemize your reporting.

Google Analytics Tip 13: Analyze Website Overall performance for Tech Repairs.

Though it's not the best part of conversion optimization, one of the essential factors in website optimization is to ensure that your site runs fast. Another one is to check whether you have technical bugs on specific browsers and devices. If your site isn't usable, conversion triggers and good designs don't matter.

Interestingly, you can run a few simple reports in Google Analytics to check if you have a speed problem (everyone can continuously improve). It can also display if you have bugs on individual devices or focus on specific technical fixes.

We'll start with cross-browser and cross-device testing.

On your Google Analytics, click on Audience -> Technology, Browser, and then OS reports.

You will view conversion rate, bounce rate, etc., for each browser. Ensure you look at one device at a time so you don't get fooled by averages. Apply device segments first: desktop only, tablet only, and mobile.

In this report, I organized mobile visitors by an assessment view. In that method, you observe which types are underperforming. Within the general assessment, search for the anomalies.

Following, let's look at speed. Go to Behavior → Web site Speed → Web page Timings. Switch on the particular 'comparison' to place slower pages:

Google Analytics Suggestion 14: Setup Your Views Correctly.

While every organization works differently, there are several Search engine Analytics and the most excellent practices for establishing your Google Analytics account. There will certainly constantly be aberrations with good factors, and typically it's recommended to set up three sights immediately:

· A Learn sight

· A Natural Data View

· The Sandbox View

The particular Raw Data sight, as suggested, ought to remain untouched. As soon as you put in a filtration system to see, it alters the information permanently. Therefore a person must have some insurance coverage employing a Virgin mobile view.

Next, you should use the particular Sandbox view to check new implementations, filter systems, etc. A person who intends to apply in your functional, workable, Master view should first check out in Sandbox view. This will be the "measure twice, reduce once" method to prevent you from making needless errors.

Google Analytics Suggestion 15: Implement Search engines Analytics Accurately.

This is effortlessly the most crucial suggestion on the list. It is also probably the most complex to talk about. The way you implement Search engines Analytics should become largely prototypical, yet there will be slight nuances depending on your circumstances.

The significant thing will be that you and your organization can believe in the data you're getting through the system. In case you don't believe in the numbers, they're worthless.

To fortify your reliance on the machine, I recommend doing a new Google Analytics examination. Be critical—request essential questions concerning your data, in addition to trying to preserve your data ethics and accuracy.

Google Analytics Tip 16: Review Cross-Domain as well as Sub-Domain Tracking.

A single of the many common problems inside a Google Analytics setup is typically wrong cross-domain or subdomain checking. This fundamentally cracks your view regarding the customer quest and how consumers interact with and convert on your current site.

I could tune in to Spotify web software all day, every single day. I may become a power customer, a paying consumer, yet, I may continue to walk all over their developer's site now and then. This may be because I need to find some depressing Radiohead tracks using their API and some wizard-like skills.

The point is Spotify transmits this data to another Google Analytics property. What this mainly means for that analyst is that we become a brand new user according to the developer's website. There's no chance these people can track the complete customer trip and total conduct with Shopify's internet properties in this method.

You may see this simply using GA Debugger, a free Chrome extension that helps perform analytics audits without opening up the particular GA interface.

They're different monitoring IDs.

In case you have subdomains or other domain names, you should consider cross-domain and sub-domain tracking implementations. Particularly if you're running a good e-commerce shop, a few cart movements break the journey, making analytics relatively ineffective.

Google Analytics Tip 17: Conduct a Marketing campaign Tracking Audit.

Should you be a marketer, one of the essential analytics-related things you need to pay attention to is your marketing campaign tracking. That is, how are you analyzing which programs are producing results? With Google Analytics, you can use UTM tags for that. They usually look like the address below:

You can find five UTM labels utilized by Google Analytics:

· Medium

· Source

· Marketing campaign

· Content

· Term

Typically the "Medium" and "Source" tags are required, but it's also recommended that you use the "Campaign" tag to trail different marketing strategies. You can use a "Content" marking to differentiate between different versions of a campaign (such as when you're A/B testing messaging). Finally, the "term" tag is employed to identify paid lookup words that generated clicks.

To start, you should run an advanced audit of your Acquisition reports, considering it from a sound judgment lens.

Move to Acquisition > All Targeted traffic > Supply / Medium, select "Medium," and see if things sound right. Does your friendly, email, or COST-PER-CLICK traffic look very low? Direct (none) looking way too high? The new common problem, and one usually caused by not enough proper marketing campaign tagging.

Subsequently, when you have got a campaign tracking plan set up, go to Acquisition > Campaigns > All Campaigns.

You may usually find some funkiness by doing a review, but campaign tagging is absolutely as strategic as well as being an organizational issue. If you believe about all the several types of campaigns and touchpoints your brand has – FB, Twitter, display advertisements, email, etc.: you can see how a little business could solve some big problems.

The particular best way to do that is to get everyone on a single spreadsheet. Luckily, Primary Path has an excellent spreadsheet template (with instructions) that you can use to produce and organize all links.

A best practice is to produce all of your tracking links in the spreadsheet to track what tags you are using and ensure you don't crack links.

Google Analytics Tip 18: Set up Custom Dimensions.

Whenever you get a bit more advanced, custom sizes become incredibly helpful for your measurement strategy.

Dimensions are things that describe your computer data. These are the "rows" in your data during your time on it. Kitts are hundreds of built-in dimensions, and you can also build "custom dimensions." In most cases, the out-of-the-box ones won't be sufficient for use in your case.

Custom sizes are often widely used to incorporate GA data with non-GA data (such as data from your CRM). Everyday use cases of custom dimensions include logged-in vs. logged-out users, phone call data, and CRM market or firmographic data. They work the same way out-of-the-box measurements work (they, too, have to have a specific opportunity such as struck, session, user, or product); it's that you have to put them up yourself.

Another everyday (and recommended) use circumstance is passing a/b test variations as custom dimensions. Therefore, you can analyze a/b test behavior on Google Analytics.

Google Analytics Tip 19: Use Calculated Metrics.

Similarly, computed metrics will undoubtedly take part in your Google Analytics experience as you feel more advanced. They are just one more way Google Analytics uses to give you the power to modify your analysis and measurement.

As an example of exactly where you may need computed metrics, consider how you determine internet commerce revenue. Does it include shipping? Inside Google Analytics standard e-commerce (or superior e-commerce) reports, it doesn't display this. So you could, if you want, create a calculated metric for Revenue – Shipping and delivery.

A calculated metric is definitely what you think it is. An individual can set them up quite readily provided that the data is available. For instance, a computed metric for Earnings Per User could be set up using Revenue and User. This article gives some other excellent calculated metrics.

Just like anything else on Google Analytics, especially those things that take configuration time and are restricted to GEORGIA in quantity (the free account restricts you to five calculated metrics), you should view this from a strategic point, and first, think about what form of calculated metrics would provide answers to your business questions.

Google Analytics Tip 20: Leverage Filters.

If there is a theme in this post (outside of fundamental data integrity), specific and focused works better than being broad and undisciplined. The more you can check the numbers that matter, the less noise there is to distract your evaluation.

Filters are just another way of accomplishing that mission.

They're utilized by Views to section your data into smaller groups. A person can use these to include specific data units, leave out other sets, or look for or replace particular data. It's a personalized view, essentially.

It's not too challenging to create filters. A person can make all the filters at the Account degree and then set them with different views. Remember, always use your Sandbox (or Test tool) View first, and then apply it to your desired view when you are sure it doesn't crack things.

A few great views include:

· Including inner IPs

· Excluding inner IPs

· Excluding Dev site traffic

· Lowercase search words

· Lowercase URLs

· Removing query strings

And on and on. There are many benefits of filters. They help you include, leave out, or consolidate specific data in a view. Use filter systems to do it.

Google Analytics Suggestion 21: Set Custom Alerts.

This particular tip is concise, but it is worth saying. I use alerts for many things in my life, from personal finance to work schedule events and more. If you worry about managing and using your computer data, why not apply the same concept?

You may use custom alerts to get this done. To create a custom alert:

· Sign in to Google Analytics.

· Navigate to your view.

· Open Information.

· Click Customization > Custom Signals.

· Click Manage custom alerts.

· Click & NEW ALERT.

And then, you install the alert to track what you wish. Usually, this is for handling drastic dips in traffic, conversions, or revenue. It's a good way of monitoring when everything is weird with your site (like busted pages). You could get pretty technological, and the track for the a/b test is relatively broken by transferring the values into GA from your testing. Anything's possible. Start simple, though, with one of these first Google Analytics tips.

Here's a traffic-based alert:

Google Analytics Tip 22: Above Sampling Limits.

Google Analytics may pull a random (and with luck) sample of your data rather than the whole thing.

Testing is undoubtedly an issue you will deal with only if you have large amounts of traffic or should you be doing some relatively narrow segmentation. For many people, it isn't an issue. An individual can tell if it's a concern for you searching at the right palm corner of your screen over a given report.

Depending on your profile, you may well be ok with sampling. Specifically, if the sample is centered on 90%+ of your data, it may be easy to take this as more or less an agent. But when it drops to less than 25% of your details, maybe you want to check a workaround (I'm simplifying the decision-making around the numbers here). Yes, there are extensive workarounds.

Here are eight as detailed by Online Metrics:

· Adjust Your details Selection

· Use Standard Information

· Create New Opinions with Filtration systems

· Lessen the Amount of Traffic per Home

· Sample Your Info by Modifying Checking Code

· Use Google Analytics API

· Employ Google Analytics Superior or Adobe Analytics

· Use BigQuery

Typically the option I like the best? When you can't manage Premium or BigQuery, and you're officially able, use the Google Analytics API. Something like that runs more minor reports and gets worse if there is a problem. If you're constantly dealing with this problem, it can be fruitful to look into something like BigQuery.

Google Analytics Tip 23: Analyze Data Using R.

Another profoundly complex topic that I'll try to brush over quickly. The summary: I think it's practical (and fun) to study R to analyze data in other ways.

A language like R will help you get past data sampling. It can also help you create powerful visualizations, automate reports, build interactive Shiny Applications, and run models that you couldn't perform very quickly within Excel.

For example, in R, a person can:

Build consumer personas using clustering and PCA/Factor Evaluation

Build attractive period of day information heat maps

Develop Markov attribution versions

The most incredible place to obtain information on how to get started is Besides, this article from Analytics Demystified is aimed at beginners, and it's the perfect place to get in at ground level.

This tip isn't particular to Google Analytics, as R (or similar statistics-focused programming languages) will help you with other things. But it will develop your skills as an analyst.

Google Analytics Tip 24: Leverage Site Search to Develop Content Ideas.

Here's a quick tip to improve UX and content ideation. How do you understand what users want on your site? Well, your search bar might be giving you an idea.

It's easy to see what people are searching for (assuming you set up a site search. If you don't, study this article on Google Analytics Audits). You can go to Behavior > Site Search > Search Terms.

This will give you access to some insights into what your users are looking for. Sure, you should run this report. But let's check to see if there are any rising trends in searches.

To do this, make a period comparison (for example, compare to the previous period), and then sort by "Absolute Change" instead of Default. This can display to you what queries are appearing brand new and more frequently when compared to the previous period (and if anything is surprising, possibly I will think about producing content around that topic):

Google Analytics Tip 25: Blend Your Pre- and Post-Purchase Information.

If you're not integrating your pre-and post-purchase information, you're missing many of the stories. One, it will help you predict consumer behavior indicators before people purchase. Two, it can assist you with done and paid purchase (more on that will in a second).

If you're searching for website activities in isolation, that is a problem. This is because you should be adding your web Analytics data with your customer data. In the particular context of this specific Google Analytics suggestions post, this means moving CRM data into Google Analytics and tugging everything to the centralized database to explore pre plus post-purchase Behavior.

This is not easy, and it isn't a one-click choice. There are lots of tools obtainable to help a person with this. Farley recommends five in his blog article, and you could also perform this with more recent digital analytics equipment like Amplitude to a certain degree.

The point is: do not look at information sources in isolation. Link your pre-and post-purchase data to get a combined story.

Google Analytics Tip 26: Examine Attribution Models

Attribution is often seen as a fundamental topic in Google Analytics. It seeks to answer the question, "how effectively are my resources being used?" You're trying to attribute specific ideals to given contact points and stations. This happens to be very challenging, and we depend on models to inform us.

I wish to say this is a big topic. All of us won't cover this in detail right here (though we do this in another article if you're curious). The critical point to note is that Google Analytics offers a great deal of helpful equipment on attribution.

First, you can see the time to buy. Second, you can take into account transformation. These help you figure out if you need to be concerned about attribution (if everyone purchases within one day after one or two touch-points, or you probably do not need to bother).

Third, Google Analytics has several attribution models inlaid in their item, such as the last click, first click on, time decay, plus linear models (all of which tell the different story regarding your marketing efforts). Again, we will not dive too earnestly into the details here, so go through this post to fully understand e-commerce attribution.

Finally, Search engines have announced that they will democratize their own "data-driven" (read: algorithmic) attribution model for everyone to utilize. Concerning those on the particular free service that will participate in multi-channel advertising with a lot of paid (especially display), this will be big news.

Attribution is an important topic, and it isn't helpful for everyone to spend much time thinking about it. But at least ask the question to see if it's right for your business to explore.

Summary On Google Analytics Ideas

Set up your current tracking, ask essential business questions, employ the data to spur Action. Stick to these Google Analytics tips to prevent the common mistakes as you go along.

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